WE have hitherto spoken of the Ichoglans or Pages, Mutes, Dwarfs, Eunuchs, and the Feminine Court; it will be now necessary to speak of the under Officers and Servants called Agiam-Oglans, who are designed to the meaner uses of the Seraglio. These are also Captives taken in War, or bought of the Tartar, but most commonly the Sons of Christians taken from their Parents at the Age of ten or twelve years, in whom appearing more strength of body than of mind, they are set apart for labour and menial services: These are,.
Of these Bostangees, some are raised to a higher degree, and called Hasaki, which signifies Royal, and attend only to messages sent by the Grand Signior himself, and are men of special authority. Their Habit or Cloathing nothing differs from the Bostangees, unless in the fineness of their Cloth, their Collar and Girdle according to this Picture.
The Agiamoglans who are designed to the Grand Signiors Seraglio, are of the choicest amongst the whole number, the strongest bodies and most promising Aspects, and are distributed into several Companies as they want to make up their complement. Their cloathing is of course Cloth made at Salonica, anciently called Thessalonica; their Caps of Felt, after the form of a Sugar-loaf, of a hair colour, according as the Picture [ The names of the Agiamoglans are written in a book with the places where they are distributed, their several Payes of two, three, or five Aspers a day, which book is under-written by the Grand Signior, and consigned to the Tefterdar or Lord Treasurer, who pays their Salaries every three months, being obliged at that time to enquire who is dead or removed, and so accordingly to make a true report to the Grand Signior.
And therefore I proceed to treat of the diversities of Offices and Places of great Riches and Trust, which remain in the power of the Sultan to confer on those Favourites, Minions, and Creatures, whom thus at his own charge he hath nourished like a Father from their [ THe prime Visier called in Turkish Visier Azem, is as much as chief Councellour; he is somtimes termed the Grand Signiors Deputy or Representative, or Vicarius Imperii, because to him all the power of the Sultan is immediately devolved; there is no other solemnity, as I know of, in the creating a Visier then the delivery of the Grand Signiors Seal, which he alwayes carries about him in his bosom, on which is engraven the Emperours name, by which he becomes invested in all the power of the Empire, and can without the formality and process of Law remove all obstacles and impediments which hinder the free sway of his Government.
The state and greatness the Prime Visier lives in is agreeable to the honour of him whom he represents, having commonly in his Court about Officers and Servants; when he appears in any solemnity or publick show, he carries on his Turbant before two Feathers, as the Grand Signior wears three set on with a handle of Diamonds and other rich Stones, and before him are carryed three horse tails called the tugh upon a long staffe, upon the top of which is a gilded knob; the like distinction of honour is permitted only to the three other principal Pashaes within their jurisdiction, viz.
The Persians in like cases put on a Vest of White Paper, signifying the aggravation of their injury is not to be described in as much Paper as can cover their bodies. Emulation and flattery are likewise great, and the factions are commonly many in the Ottoman Court, whereby the state of the first Minister is endangered. But it is seldom so among the Turks; for with them it is esteemed no disgrace to be transplanted from the Mountains to the Vallies; they know their original, and composition partakes not much of Heavenly fire, and that the Clay they are framed of, is but of common Earth, which is in the hand of the Grand Signior as the Pot, to frame and mould, as is most agreeable to his pleasure and will.
But we find but few examples of this kind. For if Visiers have been evil, their own cruelty and covetousness have hastened their fate; if good, their merits have been their ruine; least the great [ The Revenues of the first Visier which issue immediately from the Grown, and are certainappendages to the office, are not great, being not above Dollars yearly, which arise from certain Villages in Romelia; the rest of the immense riches which accrues to this charge so [Page 50] full of cares and danger, flows from all the quarters of the Empire.
For no Bassaw or Minister of trust enters his place without his Present and offering to the first Visier, to obtain his consent, and purchase a continuance of his favour. But the ways and means by which the Grand Signior comes in the end to be possessed of the gains and profits collected by his Visier, and other officers, requires a particular discourse apart, which shall in its due time and place be treated of; and this shall for the present suffice to have spoken concerning the Prime Visier and his office.
When a Pascha is made, the Solemnity used at the conferring his office, is a Flag or Banner carryed before him, and accompanied with Musick and Songs by the Mirialem, who is an Officer for this purpose only, for investiture of Pashaes in their office. To come nearer then to this purpose.
Is the Government of the Pascha of Erzrum on the confines of Georgia, hath a Revenue of a Million two hundred thousand and Aspers, and hath under his Government eleven Sangiacks, viz. Malatia, Asab, Kars, and Samsad, and hath four Castles. These are all the Governments which are in Asia with Has, let us now pass into Europe.
Is the Government of the Pascha of Rumili otherwise Romania, which is the most honourable Turkish charge in Europe, hath a Revenue of a Million and a hundred thousand Aspers, the seat of the Pascha is Sofia, and commands 24 Sangiacks, viz. There are other [ And also to help in the just computation of the number of men the Turk can bring into the Field, every Pascha being obliged for every Aspers Rent to bring a Souldier to the War: though notwithstanding, they often appear for Ostentation and gain of the Grand Signiors favour with more men then their due complement; as in the last War with Germany, the Beglerbeg of Romania brought effective men into the Field.
- Hayduke Lives! (Edward Abbey Series Book 4);
- Read PDF Sulan Book 1: Insurrection.
- Five Narratives of Pomak Heritage — From Forced Renaming to Weddings.
Of these Beglerbegs five have the Title of Visiers, which signifies as much as Councellor, viz. These three officers are near Councellors and attendants on their [ Of the Mufti we shall speak in due place. It may suffice, that being executed in the time of the last Wars against the Emperour of Germany for some conspiracy against the Great Visier, such a Treasure was found appertaining to him all which was confiscated to the Grand Signior as was sufficient to have enriched and raised his Prince, had he been impoverished, and in a declining condition.
And this shall suffice to have spoken of the Offices and Dignities of the Empire. But yet these people are esteemed as Brothers, or near allies with the Turk, to whom for want of heirs-male in the Ottoman Line, the Empire is by ancient compact to desend; the expectation of which though afar off, and but almost imaginary, doth yet conserve the Tartar in as much observance to the Turk, as the hopes of an Estate doth a young [ And thus the Tartar is as obedient as other subjects; and though the Turk exercises not his power there by commands, as in other places of his Dominions, but treats all his business by way of Letters; yet these Letters serve in the place of Waraents, for the signification of the Grand Signiors pleasure, and are as available as the The great Character of the Emperours name [ Autogra, and other formalities of the Imperial Edict, are in other places in subjection to the Turk.
The Tartar is to the Turk, as the Giacall to the Lion, who hunts and finds the prey for the Lion to overcome and feed on: And so the Tartar makes incursions into the neighbouring Countries round about, and pass in great bodies some times ten or twelve dayes without doing the least dammage or spoil in their journey outward; but as soon as they turn their [ Such of their slaves as in the journey are wounded and infirme, and not able to accompany the Camp, they kill; those which they bring safe into their own Country they sell to the Turks, who come thither to Trade for this Merchandize, which is the most profitable commodity that Tartary affords.
This sort of people were by the ancients called Sermati, and were alwayes famous for their exploits on Horse-back, but heavy and ignorant of foot service; which Character Tacitus gives of them, Lib. But now having carryed great riches out of Poland, and gained a considerable wealth by the Market of their slaves, some of them throw off their homely Plads to wear Sables, and some more frugal, employ their money for building Houses; the riotous and dissolute are addicted to strong Waters, and a drink called Boza made of a certain seed which drank in a great quantity doth intoxicate, and is now much in use among the Turks and give themselves up to a gluttony, as brutish as that which is natural unto Swine, having no art of sauces to provoke their appetite, but rest delighted with the meer contentment of idleness and a full stomach.
These three poor Provinces formerly called the Daci, which withstood so long the Roman Arms, were alwayes esteemed a Valiant and Warlike people, according to that of Virgil, lib. But now at last they are forced to yield, and become not only tributaries, but slaves and subjects to the Turk; who having deprived them of the true line of their natural Princes succeeding in a lawful inheritance, place over them some Christians of the Greek Church, without consideratian of their conditions or riches, or qualifications; nay, rather chuse to give the Standart which is the sign of the Grand Signiors confirmation of the Prince to some inferior Person, as Taverners, Fish-mongers, or other meaner professions purposely to disparage the people with the baseness of their Governors, and expose them to the oppressions of men of no worth or dexterity in their office.
But of this government they will rather let them imagine the ease and sweetness then injoy it; for [ Moldavia called by the Turks Bugdan, was first made tributary to the The word [ To which you may adde the price paid for the Principality, which is every three year set to sail, and is. The price of the [ To the Grand Signiors Favourite, who is commonly some handsome young youth, ten Purses, or Dollars. And lastly, to the Prime Visier and other Officers, for as much as they can beat their bargain. All which money is taken up at Interest of 40 or 50 per cent. Nor is Transilvania wholy exempted from the oppression of the Turk; for after several revolutions from the time of Huniades made Vayvod by Uladislaus the fourth King of Hungary, anno , a great defender of his Country against the Infidels, until the time of Stephen the seventh, surnamed Ragotzki Patronized by the Turks, anno These Princes of the three foregoing Provinces are farther obliged to serve the Grand Signior in his Wars, whensoever summoned thereunto; [Page 65] but with what number, and in what manner, we reserve for its due place in the Treatise of the Turks Militia and Auxiliaries.
The City and small Dominion of Ragusi is also another tributary to the Turk; which is a petty Common-wealth, not vouchsafed the Title of a Republick; neither by the Venetians nor the Pope, and only styled la [ There is no doubt, but the Sultan [ This petty Republick hath always supported it self by submission, and addresses for favour and defence to divers powerful Princes, courting the favour of every one, never offering injuries, and when they receive them patiently support them; which is the cause the Italians call them le sette bandiere, or the seven Banners, signifying that for their being and maintenance of the name of a free Republick, they are contented to become slaves to all parts of the world.
George the Cappadocian Martyr, and the poor Country of Mengrelia, are also tributaries to the Turk, who every three years send messengers with their sacrifice to the Grand Signior of seven young Boyes, and as many Virgins apiece, besides other slaves for Presents to great men: this people chuse rather this sort of [ For the solution of which difficulty, it will be necessary to consider that these two Empires being compared, there will be found a vast difference [ But the Turks have but one sole means to maintain their Countries, which is the same by which they were gained, and that is the cruelty of the sword in the most [ Nations have in part made serve in the place of violence.
And yet the Turks have made this course alone answer to all the intents and ends of their Government. Augustus Caesar, who was a wise and judicious Prince, considering the extent of the Roman Empire, wrote a Book, saith Tacitus, which was published after his death, wherein he described the publick Revenue,. A Monarchy where there is no Nobility at all, is ever pure and absolute Tyranny, as that of the Turks; for Nobility attempers Soveraignty, and draws the people somewhat aside from the Line Royal. By which means it comes to pass, that [ And though some have out of an aspiring and ambitious spirit, assumed a blind confidence of renting away part of the Empire; as Asan Aga Pashaw of Aleppo of [ They [ Nor is this esteemed sufficient to mortifie these poor slaves by a Womans Tyranny, but they are always put forward upon desperate attempts, as lately Ishmael Pashaw, who was killed passing the River Raab, in the overthrow given the Turks by the Emperors Forces under Montecuculi; and others I could name in the like manner; lest the honour of their Marriage in the Royal Family without the crosses and mortifications which attend it, should puff them up with the ambition and proud thoughts, which is not lawful for them to imagine.
Government of the Empire. Nor hath hereditary succession and long continuance in authority been only avoided amongst the Turks; but we finde that the Romans often changed their Governours, and never suffered them to continue long in one Province; and so the King of Spain doth at present in the Government of Flanders, the Indies, the Kingdom of Naples and other parts, the space of three years being commonly allotted them for their residence. The Romans had that opinion of the wealth and power of Egypt, that Augustus made a Decree, and held it inter alia dominationis arcana, that it should not be lawful for any without particular license to enter Egypt, and expresly forbids Senators and Gentlemen of Rome, without order from the Prince, or for affairs of State, to visit those parts.
And Tacitus Lib. And for this very reason the Grand Signior hath scarce performed the ceremonies of his inauguration before he hath seasoned his entrance to his Throne with the bloud of his Brothers; which barbarous custom began in the time of Sultan Bajazet. And this slavish and strange constitution of Government flourished for the space of And thus much shall serve to have declared how much the Turks are jealous of all successions in office and authority, which may prejudice the absolute Monarchy of their great Sultan.
HE that is an eye-witness and strict observer of the various changes and chances in greatness, honours and riches of the Turks, hath a lively Embleme of contemplation before him, of the unconstancy and mutability of humane affairs; fortune so strangely sports with this people, that a Comedy or Tragedy on the Stage with all its Scenes, is scarce sooner opened and ended, then the fate of divers great men, who in the day-time being exhaled to high sublimity, by the powerful rayes of the Sultans favour, in the night fall, or vanish like a Meteor.
Diu sordidus repente dives mutationem fortunae male regit, accensis egestate longa cupidinibus immoderatus, Tac. But the issue and conclusion of the spoils these great men make on subjects is very remarkable; for as if God were pleased to evidence his just punishment more evidently and plainly here, then in other sins; scarce any of all those Pashaws who have made haste to be rich, have escaped the Grand Signiors hands, but he either wholly devests them of all, or will share the best part of the prey with them. This [Page 78] saith Machiavel, lib. And to make more room for the multitude of officers who crowd for Preferments, and to act the cruel Edicts of the Empire with the least noise; oftentimes when a great Personage is removed from his place of Trust, and sent with a new Commission to the charge perhaps of a greater Government; and though he depart from the Regal Seat with all fair demonstrations of favour, before he hath advanced three days in his journey, triumphing in the multitude of his Servants, and his late hopes, the fatal command overtakes him; and without any accusation or cause other then the will of the Sultan, he is barbarously put to death, and his body thrown into the dirt of a Forreign and unknown Country, without solemnity of Funeral or Monument; that he is no sooner in the Grave, then his Memory is forgotten.
This sort of people become really Turks, and some through custom and their own lusts, are really perswaded of the truth of this profession, and have proved more inveterate and fatal enemies to Christianity, then the natural Turks; which will appear, if we consider that all the successes they have had, and exploits they have done at Sea, have been performed by such who have denyed the Christian Faith, as namely Chigal, Ogli, and others.
And in this manner, the natural use of the Women being neglected amongst them, and as St. Paul saith, Men burning in Rom. THere was no Nation in the World ever so barbarous, that did not acknowledge the Office of an Embassadour sacred and necessary. And Cicero saith, Sic enim sentio jus legatorum cum hominum praesidio De Harusp. An Embassadour coming from the Emperour, as soon as he enters within the Ottoman Dominions, hath his charges defrayed by the Sultan, according to the importance of the business and negotiation he is designed to, until the time of his return; and a Resident continuing in ordinary, hath in like manner his constant allowance.
The ceremonies they use at the audience of every Embassadour are acted as in all parts of the world most to set off the glory of the Empire; and represented with such advantages, as may best afford a Theme for an Embasiadours pen to describe the riches, magnificence and terrour of the Ottoman power. The mony is brought into the Divan, and there piled in heaps, where the Embassadour is first introduced, and seated on a Stool covered with Crimson-velvet, placed neer the first Visier, and other Visiers of the Bench: as soon as the money is paid out of the chief of [ Graeci Comites, prompli aditus, obvia comitas, ignotae Parthis virtutes; the affability and easiness of address to their Prince, was a scandal to that Nation.
The Embassadour at this Audience hath no [ This was the manner of the Audience given the Earl of Winchelsea, when Embassadour there for His Majesty, and is as is there said the form used to others, who come from a Prince equally honoured, and respected. The Turks, who can endure nothing less then menaces, and Kuperlee through natural cruelty and choler of old age, and particular malice against the French Nation, moved with this reply, commanded the Caousbashee, who is chief of the Pursivants, to strike him in the mouth; which he did with that force, being a rude robustious fellow, that with a few blows of his Fist, he strook out two of his Teeth before, and in a most undecent and barbarous manner dragged him with the Secretary for the Merchants, to a Dungeon so loathsome and moist, that the ill vapours oft-times extinguished the Candle.https://europeschool.com.ua/profiles/zixihez/exposicion-egipto-sevilla.php
The Avid Reader
And still the malice of Kuperlee persecuted this Sieur la Haye, until after his Embassie of 25 years continuance, unfortuante only at the conclusion, he was dispatched home obscurely and in disgrace, without Letters of revocation from his Master, or other intimation to the Grand Signior, which might signifie the desire of this Embassadours return.
As the Resident for Holland was in the year , imprisoned at Adrianople for miscarriages of a Ship belonging to his Nation, taken by Maltese men of War, whereon at [ Sunt Turci in utram que partem nimii sive indulgentia, cum pro amicis se probare volunt, sive acerbitate cum irati sunt. To reply according to the Pride and Ignorance of a Turk, is properly to blow up fire into a flame; to support with submission and a pusillanimous spirit, his affronts and indignities, by negotiating faintly or coldly, is to add fuel and wood to the burning piles; but solid reason and discourse, accompanied with chearful expressions, vivacity and courage in argument, is the only manner of dealing and treating with the Turks.
THe Turks, as we have occasionally instanced before, are naturally a proud and insolent people, confident, and conceited of their own vertue, valour and forces, which proceeds from their ignorance of the strength and constitution of other Countries; so that when the danger which may arise from the Conjunction and Union of Christian Princes to the Mahometan Interest, is discoursed of, they compare the Grand Signior to the Lyon, and other Kings to little Dogs, which may serve as they say to rouse and discompose the quiet and Majesty of the Lyon, but can never bite him, but with their utmost peril.
Of all the Princes so far remote as England, none amongst this people stands in better account then His Majesty of Great Braitain, not onely for the convenience of the Trade, which provides this Empire with many necessary commodities; but for the fame of his Shipping, and power at Sea, which makes him, though divided from all parts of the world, yet a borderer on every Country, where the Ocean extends: And this esteem and honour the Sultan bears towards His Majesty, [Page 92] hath been evidenced in several particulars, and by none more then by the security and freedom his Merchants live in, in these Dominions, and a readiness always in every reasonable request, to gratifie His Majesties Embassadours.
Yet the Turk knows, that the Venetian power is not comparable to his by land, and that nothing but Friuli stands between him and the mastery of Venice; which makes him ashamed and angry, that after so many years Wars, no greater additions should be acquired to the Empire, then his footing in Candy, the whole possession of which was imagined at the beginning of the war, would upon a bare demand been quietly presented as the price and purchase of the peace.
The Moscovite hath yet a greater fame and renown with the Turks, being reported able to make a hundred and fifty thousand Horse; so that he treats with the Turk on equal terms, and fills his Letters with high threats and Hyperbolical expressions of his power, and with as swelling titles as the Turk. The Greeks have also an inclination to the Moscovite beyond any other Christian Prince, as being of their Rites and Religion, terming him their Emperour and Protector; from whom, according to ancient prophesies and modern predictions, they expect delivery and [ But above all the great Potentates of the world, the King of [ AS the Christian Religion teaches humility, charity, courtesie, and faith towards all that are within the pale of humane nature, to be [ The sordidness of their bloud, and ungentleness of their education, makes them insolent and swelled in [Page 95] prosperity; and their Victories and Spoils upon Christians, render [ Upon these considerations of the vileness of Christianity, and scorn of their power, they assume this into a Maxime, that they ought not to regard the Leagues they have with any Prince, or the reasons and ground of a quarrel; whilst the breach tends to the enlargement of their Empire, which consequently infers the propagation of their Faith.
It is an old and practised subtilty of the Turks, immediately after some notable Misfortune to entreat of Peace, by which means they may gain time to recollect their Forces and Provisions to prosecute the War. It is notable and worthy of Record, the treachery of the Treaty used in the year Begun in the time of Mahomet the third, and broken off by Achmat his Successor. Feasting the [ It is vulgarly known to all, that their Law was compiled by [ The first is the Alchoran; the second, the consent or testimony of Wisemen, called the Assonah, or the traditions of the Prophets; and the third, the inferences or deductions of one thing from another.
Secondly, to make Prayers five times a day. Thirdly, to observe the Ramazan or Monethly Fast. Fifthly, to make their Pilgrimage to Mecha, if they have means and possibility to perform it. But the Article of Faith required to be believed is but one, viz.
Men that speak against the Mahometan Law, that have rashly promised at a time of distraction or drunkenness to become Turks, or have had carnal knowledge of a Turkish Woman, must either become Martyrs or Apostates; besides many other subtilties they have to entrap the souls of Christians within the entanglements of their Law. And this Doctrine being irrational to the better sort of judgements, causes the Lawyers, who are men of the subtilest capacities amongst the Turks, to mistrust much of the truth of the Doctrine of Mahomet; especially the assertions relating to the condition of the other life.
But to return to our purpose. And the same argument if I am not mistaken in the times of the late Rebellion in England, was made use of by many, to intitle God to their cause, and make him the Author of their thriving [ In matters of State the Sultan demands his opinion, whether it be in condemnation of any great man to death, or in making War or Peace, or other important affairs of the Empire; [ And this practice is used in [ It seems the Mufti was greatly perplexed and puzzeled in the resolution; for sometimes it seemed a disesteem to the value of a Turk to be rated under the price of a Christian; on the other side, it appeared want of charity and care of the interest of the Mosselmans to neglect real terms of advantage on such aery and subtle points of formality.
The Mufti whilst qualified with that title, is rarely put to death, but first degraded, and then becomes liable to the stroak of the Executioner; but in cases of notorious crimes or conviction of Treason, he is put into a Mortar for that intent remaining in the Prison called the seven Towers at [ These and Kadees which are the lower and ordinary sort of Judges are as much to be reckoned in the number of religious men as the [ This is all the Ceremony required in making an Emaum; [ Their office is to call the people to prayers, and at due hours to be their leader into the Mosque, and to read and repeat upon Fridayes certain Sentences or Verses out of the Alchoran; few of them adventure to Preach, unless he be well conceited or really well gifted, but leave that office to the [ AFter the [ And though few of them can derive his Genealogie clearly from [ The [ Their second Officer is called Alemdar, who carries the Green Flag of Mahomet, when the Grand Signior appears with any solemnity in publick, they are capable of any offices; few of them exercise any Trade, unless that which is [ It is reported by the Turks, that Constantinople was taken upon a Wednesday; and that on the Friday following which is their Sunday or Sabbath as we may call it the victorious Sultan then first entituled Emperour, went with all Magnificent Pomp and Solemnity to pay his Thansgiving and Devotions at the Church of Sancta Sophia; the Magnificence of which so pleased him, that he immediately added a yearly Rent of Zechins to the former endowments; for the maintenance of Imams or Priests, Doctors of their Law, Talismans and others, who continually attend there for the Education of youth, teaching them to read and write, instructing them also in the principles of their Law and Religion.
Over and above this expence, there is daily provision made for relief of a multitude of poor, who at certain hours appear at the Gates of this Temple, and receive their daily sustenance; whatsoever advances as yearly great summes are laid up in the Treasury, is numbred with the riches of the Mosch, and remains for the service of that place, as for the reparation, or building thereof, in case of fire or other accidents. As shall the Vessel say to the Potter, Why hast thou made [ Some are so positive in this assertion, that they are not afraid to say that God is the Author of evil, without distinction or evasions to acquit the Divine purity of [ And though they evidently see that Christians, who fly into better Airs, and from infected habitations, survive the fury of the years Pestilence, when whole Cities of them perish and are depopulated with the Disease; yet so far is this opinion rooted amongst them, that they scruple not to strip the contagious shirt from the dead body, and to put it on their own, nor can they remove their aboad from the Chambers of the sick; it being the custom in the Families of great men to lodge many Servants on different Palets in the same room, where the diseased and healthful lie promiscuously together, from whence it hath happened ofter, that three parts of a Pashaws Family, which perhaps hath consisted of two hundred men, most youthful and lusty, have perished in the heat of July and Augusts Pestilence.
Though the Mahometan Law obliges them not to abandon the City, nor their houses, nor avoid the conversation of men infected with the Pestilence where their business or calling employs them; yet they are counselled not to frequent a contagious habitation, where they have no lawful affair to invite them. And this is the opinion [Page ] most general and currant with the Turks, who are called Jebare; There is another sort amongst them called Ka [ For resolution of which difficulties, nothing can be said more then that the god of this world hath blinded the hearts of them that believe not, Lest the light of the glorious Gospel 2 Cor.
The Mahometan Religion is also one of the prodigious products of Reasons superfaetations, which hath brought forth nothing good, nor rational in this production, more then the confession of one God. And yet even herein also are diversities of Sects, Opinions and Orders, which are maintained in opposition each to other, with emulation and zeal by the professours, with heats, disputes and separations, terming the contrary parties prophane and unholy; the particulars of which Sects and diversity in their Tenents, I shall as far as I have seen or could learn, set down and describe, having with the more curiosity and diligence made the stricter enquiry, because I have not read any Author which hath giving a satisfactory account of such Sects as are sprung up amongst them in these latter and modern times.
It is a common opinion, that there are seventy two Sects amongst the Turks, but it is probable there are many more, if the matter were exactly known and scanned. In this manner they account seventy different Sects amongst the Jews, seventy one amongst the Christians, and to the Mahometan they assign one more, as being [Page ] the last and ultimate Religion, in which, as all fulness of true Doctrine is completed, so the Mystery of iniquity, and the deviation of mans judgment, by many paths from the right rule, is here terminated and confined.
The Turks have amongst themselves as well as in other Religions, Sects and Heresies of dangerous consequence, which daily encrease mixing together with them many of the Christian Doctrines which shall in their due place be described and in former times also a sort of phanatick Mahometans which at first met only in Congregations under pretence of Sermons and Religion, appeared afterwards in Troops armed against the Government of the Empire.
Whereupon Burgluzes masking his Villany under a grave and serious countenance, took his journey into [ The Turk also accuses the Persian of corrupting the Alchoran, that they have altered words, misplaced the Comma's and Stops, that many places admit of a doubtful and ambiguous sense, so that those [ Nor are the Persians on the other side endued with better nature of good will to the Turks, estranging themselves in the farthest manner from their Customs and Doctrines, rejecting the three great Doctors of the [ If you had sayes he no other Heresie then the rejection of those elevated familiars of Mahomet, viz.
Omar, Osman and Ebbubecher, your crime would notwithstanding be so great as were not expiable by a thousand years of prayer or pilgrimage in the sight of God; but you would be condemned to the bottomless Abisse of Hell, and deprived for ever of Celestial Bliss; and this sentence of mine is confirmed by the same opinion of the four Imams, viz. Nor are you contented to pass with this single errour, whereby you have gained the name of Kyzilbaschi, that is, Persian Hereticks, but you are become as abominable as the Durzi a people that lives about Mount Libanus of bad esteem and reputation, corrupted in all points of Doctrine and manners; so that I cannot but pass this black sentence upon you, that it is lawfull in a Godly zeal to kill and destroy you for the Service of God; your Tenents being refuted by Giafer Efendi, who hath branded the Persians for Pagans, and in seventy several places of the Alchoran, and the very words of Mahomet demonstrated the clearness of their errour.
And one of your detestable [ That you esteem your selves obliged to assemble at the Moschs, but not to prayers: for what signifies your meeting, if not to prayers? Do there want pious and holy persons of the race of Mahomet? At the Abdest or washing, you hold it not lawful to wash the bare feet, but only lightly stroak them over. That holy Colour of Green appropriated to the Banner of Mahomet, which ought only to adorn the nobler parts, you in despight to the honour of the Prophet, with an irreverent negligence, place it on your Shooes and Breeches.
Wine which is an abomination to the true observers of the Law, you drink freely of, without scruple of conscience; as also in Meats you make no distinction between clean and unclean, but use all with a like [ How vile must those Children be who are the issue of such Parents? But you cannot be so irrational, as to deny that the Assembling in [ Why do not you ask your Pilgrims who come from Mecha, what mean these four Altars in the Mosch, which are the places of prayer designed to the four several Orthodox Sects?
Was not [ Was not he who disposed and distinguished the Chapters of the Alchoran the chast Osman? Was not the bravest and most Learned bearer of the [ And were not Imam [ Did not Mohomet say with his own mouth, O Hali, for thy sake there are two sorts of people predestinated to Hell? But you who profess your selves Disciples of the Prophet of God, and derived from That is, when the people are called to prayers from the Steeple.
And I hope that the Majesty of God in the day of Judgment will condemn you to be the Asses of the Jews, to be road and hacknyed in Hell by that despised people; and that in a short time you will be exterminated both by us, the Tartars, the Indians and Arabians our Brothers and Associates in the same Faith. These four are all accounted Orthodox, and are followers of certain Doctors as we may say amongst [ Table of Contents. Related Content. In Identity, Nationalism, and Cultural Heritage under Siege , Fatme Myuhtar-May makes a case for the recognition of Pomak heritage by presenting five stories from the past and present of the Rhodope Muslims in Bulgaria as examples of a distinct Pomak culture.
The stories range from the Christianisation during the Balkan Wars of and the forced communist renaming of the Pomaks in the s, to their fascinating wedding rituals and historic figures. The book uncovers the dynamics that were at play in the recognition of male and female suffrage rights and in the definition of male and female citizenship in modern Europe.
It provides the background against which a new European paradigm of parity democracy is gradually asserting itself. Making use of archives, literary works, diaries, newspapers, almanacs, art works or cartoons, the contributors focus particularly on the ways in which women gained power and exercised agency in late Ottoman Empire and early Republican Turkey. Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement. No, it was his sharp intelligence, his quick wit, how he was willing to go as dark as he needed to in order to do what he thought was right.
And then there was the biggie—the way he had of making her feel shockingly alive. No one did intimidation like Archer, and in his line of work he could be in a coma and still intimidate everyone in the room.
Dawn of the Eagles | Memory Alpha | FANDOM powered by Wikia
Instead his body seemed lean and seriously badass, with caramel skin that strayed from light to golden to mocha latte depending on what the season was, giving him a look of indeterminable origin. It worked for him, allowing him to fit in to just about any situation.
Handy on the job, she imagined. But with her he was careful. There was always a shocking and baffling yearning beyond both the glances and the touches. Not that it mattered since he still held back with her. The problem was she yearned too. Yearned for him to see her as a woman, strong and capable enough to stand at his side. She turned away, annoyed by how her entire body had gone on high alert as always, every inch of her seeming to hum beneath the surface.
Any resemblance to the quirky characters in her books is, um, mostly coincidental. USA Today bestselling author J. The book also has a new cover, check it out. And you can click here to read my 5-star review of this amazing story! Synopsis Head down.
Never make eye contact. Those were the words I lived by growing up, the words that protected me in an unsafe home. Sometimes those we are so quick to judge often need a second, third or even fourth time to make a first impression. And often, there are friendships and even love waiting just around the corner, if we are brave enough to take the first step. Am I brave? Or will I hide behind these tattered gloves of mine forever? About the Author J. She is a California native living in the beautiful state of historic Virginia.
Married to her high school sweetheart, they have two beautiful girls that drive them batty on a daily basis. Where to find J. Synopsis Wyatt Watkins is like most young boys his age. Wyatt works hard in school, gets good grades, and enjoys a reliable and fun circle of friends. But when tragedy strikes the Watkins family, they are forced to relocate from the city to Upstate New York and the rural, forgotten town of Cloverbrook.
A seemingly harmless, small town of roughly 3, people, nestled at the base of the Adirondack Mountains, Cloverbrook welcomes the family quickly as it prepares for its 72nd Annual Pumpkin Smash and Harvest Festival. Wyatt finds the massive forests, blanketed in a sea of orange, red and yellow leaves, the perfect playground to adjust to his new life, while the family struggles to cope with their loss. But deep in the dark forests that surround the town, a hidden evil lurks…waiting…watching.
And while the evil forces in the forest continue to grow, Wyatt uncovers an artifact with untold power that will thrust the entire family into the middle of an ancient struggle between good and evil. Synopsis Wyatt Watkins used to be a restless daydreamer — and like most boys his age, eager to make friends. But the moment he and the rest of the Watkins family crossed over the border into the town of Cloverbrook, everything changed. Surrounded by an endless forest and a massive, grey mountain range to the north, Wyatt found himself pulled into an ancient struggle between good and evil.
Using the powers bestowed upon him by his Adder Stone, Wyatt became a reluctant hero, battling an army of creatures set upon seizing his Adder Stone — even if it meant destroying Wyatt and his family along the way. Then, in the final moments of what seemed to be a battle won, Wyatt faced some of his most crippling fears — the death of someone close to him and the mysterious disappearance of one of his family members. He will find himself surrounded by some who wish to help him and those who wish to do him harm. And as a massive winter storm threatens all of Cloverbrook from behind the cold Adirondack Mountains, they will all come to know the one true evil that threatens to alter the very fabric of existence and bring an end to the world itself.
His writing mixes paranormal, horror and fantasy related themes. Giveaway a Rafflecopter giveaway. See below for the cover, information on the book, and pre-order links. Synopsis Brooklyn Hawk is an enigma. Highly sought after for her incredible voice, her talent shines bright in the studio.
But a dark past and a secret she holds close to her heart keep her from permanently stepping into the limelight. As the lead singer for rock sensation Stone Butterfly, Levi Matthews is wary of bringing in new talent. But the world of music can be as dangerous as it is thrilling. Will Levi and Brooklyn keep their voices and their hearts entwined? Or will the music prove too hard to survive? Yeah, right addiction to signed books. He is the best inspiration, my biggest supporter, and the love of my life. He is also incredibly patient and understanding about the fact that he has to fight the voices in my head for attention.
I hope you enjoy reading my books as much as I enjoyed writing them! Especially in a place like Aspen. I moved to the mountains for my dream vet job.
I never expected to run into the man of my dreams. Work hard. Play hard. I stay while the women come and go. Crazy Over You is a standalone romantic comedy and the second book in the Love with Altitude series. A wager between friends. An excuse to hang out with her more. Who agrees to date their best friend over a green smoothie? Apparently this girl right here. Now the man-bun-sporting South African rugby god next door is my fake boyfriend.
I need to rebuild my confidence after some poor dating decisions. Her Modern Love Stories feature characters in their thirties and forties finding and rediscovering love in unexpected and humorous ways. Her Wingmen books star regular guys who often have beards, drive trucks, and love deeply once they fall.
Look for her new Rom Com series, Love with Altitude, in Born and raised in San Diego, Daisy currently lives in a real life Stars Hollow in the Boston suburbs with her husband, their rescue dog, and an indeterminate number of imaginary house goats. When not writing about herself in the third person, Daisy can be found traveling, gardening, baking, or lost in a good book. Follow the five siblings on their quest for love in the Rivers Edge boxed set. This set contains five full length novels, as well as two novellas and a never before released short story featuring Brooklyn.
For mature audiences only due to graphic sexual content and language. Excerpt Trust Me Maddox. I drive home in comfortable silence. As we start to approach the city limits of Rivers Edge, I start to wonder what I should do next. What the hell? I always go to their place. But the thought of Avery in my house, my bed, just feels right. I turn off Main Street and head down Lincoln towards my place. When I reach my house, I pull into the drive and kill the engine.
Quickly, I hop out and walk around to her door. When I open it, she seems slightly hesitant, maybe even nervous. I extend my hand to her and help her down from the truck and head inside. When we step inside the dark recesses of my living room, I start to walk towards the lamp but she catches me by the arm, stopping me. I turn to look at her. The only light in the room is what moonlight is filtering through the window. Standing there in my darkened living room, light glowing off her blond hair, she looks stunning.
She extends her hand up to cradle my cheek, her other hand runs up my abdomen from my stomach to rest on my chest. I step closer to her, looking deep into her eyes. She must have realized she was holding her breath because she lets out a big breath, which comes out a little shaky.
My resolve shatters like a glass vase with that one look as I push her back against my front door. Our lips are urging each other on as our desire for each other completely takes over. She runs her tongue down my neck, and I almost come completely undone in my pants like a teenage boy by that one simple move. I cradle her ass in my hands and lift her up.
She threads her legs around my waist, her hands diving into my hair. I lean against her, pushing her back into the door, and she moans. I press hot kisses along her chin, down her delectable neck and lick the spot where her pulse is rapidly beating. Tell me to stop right now and I will.
Tell me you want this as much as I do. About the Author Lacey Black is a Midwestern girl with a passion for reading, writing, and shopping. She carries her e-reader with her everywhere she goes so she never misses an opportunity to read a few pages. Always looking for a happily ever after, Lacey is passionate about contemporary romance novels and enjoys it further when you mix in a little suspense. She resides in a small town in Illinois with her husband, two children, and a chocolate lab. Submerged also made her an International Bestseller in the summer of Nightmares are nothing new to Evanee Brown.
But once she meets Lathan, they plummet into the realm of the macabre.
Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) (Historical Dictionaries of People and Cultures)
Murder victims are reaching from beyond the grave to give Evanee evidence that could help Lathan bring a terrifying killer to justice. Together, they could forge an indomitable partnership to thwart violence, abuse, and death-if they survive the forces that seek to tear them apart. Excerpt Lathan laid Honey in his bed. Her body was dead weight and awkward, so he adjusted her arms, her legs, her head as if she were a life-sized ragdoll, until she looked comfortable.
He tore off his gloves, pressed his fingers to her neck, and concentrated on finding her pulse. The steady pressure of her heartbeat tapped against his fingertips in a Morse code rhythm all its own. He laid his other hand on her chest, just below her clavicles, to ensure the rise and fall of her breathing. He tried not to notice how close his hand was to her breasts. The side of his hand rested next to the gentle slope of her breast.
If he fanned out his pinkie finger—no. He pulled his hand away. He went into the bathroom, soaped up half the stack of clean washcloths and washed the lingering scent of decay from her hand. Her skin was rough and red, her fingers knobby and strong, her nails ragged and short. She had the body and clothing of a stripper, but he expected something more faux sexy than torn up fingernails and blistered feet. What kind of job abused her hands and her feet? Nothing seemed to fit. He had questions and not one answer. What was her name? Why was he able to touch her? Where the fuck did she get a human eyeball?
He stared at her face as if the answers were written in the delicate arch of her brows, or in the gentle curve of her lashes. Or in the small sickle shaped scar at the corner of her mouth that curved upwards giving her the curious appearance of smiling out of one side of her mouth, while the other side frowned.
So cold. He should get the heavy sleeping bag from the closet. He should cover her with it and leave the room. He should, he should, he should. He pulled off his boots, eased into the bed—she latched onto him before he fully reclined. She molded herself to him. His shoulder her pillow, her arm around his middle, one of her legs draped over his thighs, her knee just a few miniscule inches from his groin.
Everything vanished, except the vivid sensation of her feminine curves burrowing into him, seeking his safety, his comfort, his warmth.
This series contains examples of:
She was cool where he was on fire. She was sweet where he felt bitter. She fit into his arms, against his body, and into his soul, like she was designed especially for him. Or if they did, they never lasted. Synopsis First in a gripping paranormal romantic suspense duo by a Golden Heart finalist debut author whose clinical work gives her chilling insights…. Scarred by lightning, burdened with a power that gives him no peace, Xander struggles to maintain his sanity against the voice that haunts him day and night—the voice of a woman begging him to save her.
Isleen Walker has long since given up hope of escape from the nightmare of captivity and torture that is draining her life, her mind, and her soul. Except…there is the man in her feverish dreams, the strangely beautiful man who beckons her to freedom and wholeness. And when he comes, if he comes, it will take all their combined fury and faith to overcome a madman bent on fulfilling a deadly prophecy. She loves Snicker Parfaits. She writes dark emotional books featuring damaged characters, but always gives her hero and heroine a happy ending… after torturing them for three hundred pages.
At night she burns up the keyboard. Well… Burn might be too strong a word. She at least sits with her hands poised over the keyboard, waiting for inspiration to strike. And when it does—the keyboard might get a little warm. Just saying. You, in the red hat. His deep, resonant voice and confident delivery remind me of a movie trailer narrator. Twisting to see behind me, I lean too far to the left, shifting my body weight, and slide downhill sideways. In an attempt to right myself, I lift my left ski pole and stab it into the snow.
A pole rests a few feet away. Sitting up to reclaim it requires stronger ab muscles than I possess. Her core trembled as Sir Reginald stroked her slick folds. A girl can learn many things about the ways of love and throbbing manhoods by sneaky reading romances. White crosses decorate the chest and sleeve. Think you can right yourself and uphill? Climb back to me? Can you pop yourself out of your bindings? Use the big long stick in your hand.
If shooting fish in a barrel is easy, spearing them must be the opposite. Or beer. Something manly and smooth. See below for information on the book, buy links, and details on her giveaway. But at least she got a scholarship…. As in monsters from her nightmares follow her into her waking life vivid. When her big sister goes missing, eighteen-year-old Hailey finds only one place offers her answers—a paranormal university in Alaska. The creatures, the classes, the college, the Middle of Nowhere! How awesome! Romance, murder, mystery, and all things paranormal coupled with Fringe-worthy science, this book is perfect for fans of Eureka, Haven, Supernatural, and X-Files.
This is a really fast-paced, exciting novel. You can call her Colleen. She also mentors pre-published authors through workshops and contests. Some of her off-the-wall talents include speaking in codes which she learned working with Alaska State Troopers , flying helicopters, and Irish dance.
Where to Find C. This year is about righting the wrong Papa did to Maman. That is, until I catch an intruder poking around my kitchen. Sophie Bander turns my world upside down. But no matter. Nothing—not even Sophie—can make me abandon my goals. Except… I want her to distraction.
- 5 Natural Stress Management Techniques (How to Deal with Stress Book 1).
- Audiobook (abridged).
- Future Concepts XXXII - Education Challenges for the Future Five!
- knvyscr.tk Ebooks and Manuals.
- Books by Greg Martin.
- Anunnaki and Ulema-Anunnaki Vault of Forbidden Knowledge and the Universe’s Greatest Secrets. 7th Edition?
- More titles to consider.
This year is about proving to Dad I can be a first-class realtor and a worthy associate. That is, until a hunk of a tenant mistakes me for a thief and presses me against the wall in his kitchen. Noah Masson turns my life into a mess. He makes me blush and laugh, and fantasize about him all the damn time. He awakens my body. And yet, not even dreamboat Noah can get me sidetracked from my goals.
Or can he? At the age of six, she released her first rom com. See below for information on the book, buy links, an exclusive excerpt, and details on her giveaway.