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Possibly a paraphrase of Orwell's description of the rationale behind Newspeak in Misattributed [ edit ] We sleep peaceably in our beds at night only because rough men stand ready to do violence on our behalf. This has commonly been attributed to Orwell but has not been found in any of his writings.

Quote Investigator found the earliest known appearance in a Washington Times essay by Richard Grenier: "As George Orwell pointed out, people sleep peacefully in their beds at night only because rough men stand ready to do violence on their behalf. The war is not meant to be won, it is meant to be continuous. Hierarchical society is only possible on the basis of poverty and ignorance. This new version is the past and no different past can ever have existed. In principle the war effort is always planned to keep society on the brink of starvation.

The war is waged by the ruling group against its own subjects and its object is not the victory over either Eurasia or East Asia but to keep the very structure of society intact. All of the lines are excerpts from various parts of Goldstein's book in part 2, chapter 9 of the novel with some paraphrasing. Note that the fourth sentence begins with "This new version".

In Moore's speech there is no antecedent for this phrase; consequently, the sentence makes no sense there. We have a hunger for something like authenticity, but are easily satisfied by an ersatz facsimile. Actually a statement by Miles Orvell, in The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, — There are some ideas so absurd that only an intellectual could believe them. Possibly a paraphrase of Bertrand Russell in My Philosophical Development : "This is one of those views which are so absurd that only very learned men could possibly adopt them.

The further a society drifts from truth, the more it will hate those who speak it. This has been attributed to Orwell on the internet, but the earliest source citing him as author appears to be a post from Jsnip4 on the RealistNews. Wikipedia has an article about: George Orwell. Wikisource has original text related to: Author:George Orwell. Bolingbroke adopted all the prejudices of his royal mistress and paid the most assiduous attention to her favorite. Bit- ter altercations took place in the royal presence; Anne's health visibly declined; their dissentions and her disease increased together.

At length, on the 27th of July, , Oxford was suddenly dismissed from office and Bolingbroke seemed to have the great objects of his ambition within his grasp; but on the 29th of the same month the Queen was seized with a lethargic disorder, attended by the most alarm- ing symptoms. At the council on the following day timidity and indecision prevailed ; suddenly the two most powerful Whig lords, the Dukes of Argyle and Somerset, entered, though they had not been summoned, and were invited to take their seats at the board by the Duke of Shrewsbury.

Their proposals for securing the Hanoverian succession were adopted with- out opposition, and Bolingbroke saw that his visions of power were dissipated almost as soon as they had been formed. On the ist of August the Queen died, and George I. On the accession of George I. Bolingbroke and Ormond fled to the continent; the Earl of Oxford was sent to the Tower; Swift returned to Dublin, which he regarded a place of exile, and where he was exposed to some danger by the seizure of treasonable papers which were found di- rected to him.

The Church of Ireland then, as now, was divided between two parties, which may, perhaps, without offense, be distin- guished as the Puritanical and the Orthodox, whose only bond of union was their com. From the very beginning the leaders of the Reformed Church in Ireland had shown a strong leaning towards the principles adopted by the English non-conformists, and this tendency was much increased among the native clergy by the Crom- wellian settlement, which introduced a large body of Inde- pendents into Ireland, and diffused an impatience of Epis- copal control through the great majority of the Protestant body.

A whimsical incident exasperated the mutual jealousy of the Protestant parties, "the pious, glorious and immortal memory of King William" was fre- quently given, as a toast in mixed companies, and, of course, was offensive to those Tories who entertained Jacobite principles. Swift came over from England a strenuous advocate for the extreme principles of high church, which had been so long the watch-word of his party, and a resolute supporter of the clerical privileges which the Whigs were accused of menacing.

His assertion of his own rights as Dean soon involved him in harassing and vexatious disputes with Arch- bishop King and the Chapter; but in the end Swift tri- umphed, and he subsequently acquired such an ascendancy over the Chapter that no resistance was made to any of his propositions. Believing that Ireland was destined to be his residence during the remainder of his days. Swiff arranged a mode of living equally consistent with his notions of parsimony and dignity. For the most part he dined, at a stipulated price, with Mr. Worral, a clergyman of his cathedral, whose house was recommended by the peculiar neatness and pleasantry of his wife.

On two days in the week he opened his house to the public, and dined off plate with great pomp; his enter- tainments were soon frequented by the most eminent men and most elegant ladies in Dublin. Stella regulated the table on public days, but appeared at it as a mere guest, like the other ladies. Miss Vanhomrigh's arrival in Ireland and assertion of her claims soon disturbed the happiness of the circle. Stella's anxiety affected her spirits and materially injured her health; in a few weeks she was brought to the verge of the grave. Swift, shocked at the effects which his conduct seemed likely to produce, applied to his old friend and tutor, St.

Her answer, as reported by the Bishop, was to this effect, "That for many years she had patiently borne the tongue of slander, but that hitherto she had been cheered by the hope of one day becom- ing his wife ; that of such an event she now saw no prob- ability, and that consequently her memory would be trans- mitted to posterity branded with the most unmerited obloquy. This was an eligible offer of marriage that had been made her by a gentleman named Tisdal, which Swift had first endeavored to defeat indirectly by prescribing harsh conditions, and when these were accepted by the ardent lover, had rejected altogether.

The Bishop communicated this conversation to the Dean, who said in reply, "That in early life he had laid down two maxims with respect to matrimony; the first was, never to marry unless possessed of a competency; the second, unless this was the case at such a period of life as afforded him a probable prospect of living to educate his family; but yet since her happiness depended on his marrying her, he would directly comply with her vv ishes on the following terms : that it should remain a secret from all the world, unless the dis- covery were called for by some urgent necessity, and that they should continue to reside in separate houses.

Immediately after the ceremony Swift exhibited the most violent paroxysms of mental agitation ; he hurried from the deanery to the pal- -ace, and had a private interview with Archbishop King, which lasted more than an hour. Towards its close Dr. Delany accidentally entered the library; Swift instantly hur- ried out so distractedly as not to recognize his friend, and when Delany came up to the Archbishop, he found him dis- solved in tears. On enquiring the reason, the Archbishop replied, ''You have just met the most unfortunate man in the world, but you must never venture to ask me the cause of his misfortunes.

Delany at one time believed that both Swift and Stella were natural children of Sir William Temple, and that the rela- tionship was not discovered until after the miarriage. But this theory has been long since abandoned, and there are positive proofs that no such relationship existed. It is lamentable to add, that even after the marriage, Swift continued to keep up a tender intimacy with Miss Vanhom- righ.

She resided at a beautiful and romantic seat near Cel- bridge, where, according to the tradition of the neighbor- hood, she led a gloomy and secluded life, and was never seen to smile except at the periods of Swift's visits. Many anec- dotes of her kindness and benevolence are still related by the peasantry, and the Dean's memory is anything but popular in the vicinity of Celbridge.

So far as the first sketch can be traced in the hints contained in the letters to and from Vanessa, it appears that the project was originally confined to caricaturing the exag- gerations of travelers. The popularity of "Robinson CrusoQ" appears to have suggested the change in the character of Gulliver, from a starched philosopher, as originally designed, to a blunt sailor. Dunlop, in his erudite History of Fiction, has dwelt very forcibly on the points of resemblance between Gulliver and Crusoe, and has established a strong proba- bility that the similarity is not accidental.

In the year Swift quitted his occupations and amuse- ments to appear once more upon the stage as a politician. To purchase this aid they were forced to sacrifice the national prosperity of their adopted country to the commercial jealousy of England; but they paid the price with reluctance, and would have resisted had they dared. William III. In compliance with this requisition, an act was passed in January, , for the im- position of such additional duties on all woolens except friezes as amounted almost to a prohibition.

But this did not satisfy the spirit of monopoly which then possessed the British Parliament. A joint address from both Houses was presented against Irish woolens, to which the King made the following memorable reply : My Lords and Gentlemen: I shall do all that in me lies to discourage the woolen manufacture of Ireland, and to encourage the linen manu- facture there; and to promote the trade of England.

July 2d, The promise to encourage linen was not kept, but the dis- couragement of woolens was observed to the letter. In the year the British ParHament prohibited the exporta- tion from Ireland of all cloth made of wool or containing any mixture of it, to any country except South Britain, and even in that case under such duties and restrictions as vir- tually amounted to a total exclusion.

These prohibitory laws were accompanied with enforcements as inconsistent with the legislative distinctness of Ireland as with the prin- ciples of the English constitution. The accused were liable to the penalties of confiscation, imprisonment, and trans- portation, without the benefit of a fair trial ; for though they should have been acquitted under all the forms of laws in Ireland, they might still be carried to England to be tried by a foreign jury, far from their friends and the witnesses in their favor, perhaps without money or resources.

The ruHng powers were alarmed; the pamphlet was declared seditious; its printer, Waters, was arrested and brought to trial. Whitshed, the Chief Justice, one of the most thorough partisans that ever sat on the Irish bench, charged the jury, and laying his hand on his heart, solemnly protested that the author's design was to bring in the Pre- tender; and when a verdict for acquittal was tendered, he remanded the jury nine times, until at length he wearied them into a special verdict, by which the matter was left to the discretion of the judges.

His colleagues were afraid to act upon the verdict; the invidious business was ad- journed from term to term, until at length, in the vice- royalty of the Duke of Grafton, it was terminated by a nolle prosequi. The violence of the government tended only to invest Swift with extraordinary popularity: he became a universal favorite with all classes of Irishmen, save the mere creatures of the castle; and while his circle of private friends was enlarged, he tasted largely of the pleasures derived from public admiration.

But he made little use of the power thus obtained; his time was frittered away in trifling and jocular communications to Sheridan, Delany, and his other ad- mirers, few of which rise above the level of mediocrity. Fate had also a severe blow in store for him. In , Miss Van- homrigh urged an immediate union so pertinaciously that he was forced to confess that he had been already married to Stella. Disappointment and vexation brought the unfortun- ate Vanessa to a premature grave: before her death, she destroyed a will which she had made in the Dean's favor, and made a second, in which she enjoined her executors to pub- lish the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa, in which the Dean had avowed his love, and also several of his warmest letters.

Bishop Berkeley, one of Swift's most intim. The effect produced by the appearance of the poem, both on Swift and Stella, was very great. Stella went to the house of a friend in the coun- try, where in a few weeks, she recovered her usual equanim- ity. During one of his occasional trips to England, Swift is said to have waited on Sir Robert Walpole, and to have made overtures to that minister. In the course of conversa- tion Swift pointed to some ivy, and said, "I am like that ivy; I want support.

The Dean saw that there was no hope, and took his leave; but thenceforward he cherished the most bitter animosity against Walpole. In the notes on the character of Flimnap, in the Voyage to Lilliput, some of Swift's attacks on the premier are pointed out; it deserves to be added, that they amused Walpole just as much as they did other people. In the year great complaints were made of a scarcity of copper coinage in Ireland; to remedy the inconvenience a patent was granted to Wood, a manufacturer of Wolver- hampton, authorizing him to coin one hundred and eighty thousand pounds' worth of half-pence and farthings for the kingdom of Ireland.

The nation became alarmed; addresses against the patent were voted by the Irish Padiament and most of the civic corpora- tions. The grand jury of the county of Dublin presented, as enemies to their country, all who should attempt to put the coin into circulation; and it was almost universally stig- matized by magistrates and gentlemen assembled at the quarter sessions throughout the country.

The British Privy Council published a report in favor of the coin, and severely condemned the address of the Irish Parliament. But the popular clamor was too great and too general to be resisted, and on the recommendation of Archbishop Boulter the patent was revoked in the following year. This publication gave serious annoyance to the govern- ment ; a proclamation was issued, offering a reward of three hundred pounds for the discovery of the author; Harding, the printer, was arrested, but the indictment preferred against him was ignored by the grand jury. Swift subse- quently waited on the Lord-lieutenant Carteret, a nobleman of great politeness and liberality, and remonstrated against the severe measures which the government had adopted.

Carteret replied by an appropriate quotation from Virgil: Res durae et regni novitas me talia cogunt Moliri. Whenever Swift's life appeared most fraught with enjoy- m. In the very midst of the Drapier's popularity, Stel- la's health began to visibly decline. The Dean was in England when she was first attacked, preparing to pay a visit to Lord Bolingbroke, then an exile in France; the calamity brought him back to Ireland, where his presence for a time restored Stella to imperfect health.

He then came back to England, and in conjunction with Pope, -pub- lished three volumes of Miscellanies. In the year , Gulliver's Travels appeared, and were hailed with a mixture of merriment and amazement, which at once stamped their popularity. Some contemporary crit- ics accused him of having imitated Defoe; and the charge has been often repeated. No doubt, there are many striking- points of resemblance between the two great fictions of these authors, especially the air of truth which the recital of minute and apparently striking circumstances gives to their narrative; but while Defoe strictly confines himself to romantic adventure.

Several foreign cities have expressed surprise at the ab- sence of all allusion to Defoe and his works in Swift's pro- ductions. Even in the present day, were a Tory to express admiration of Moore's witty Lyrics, the cry of de- serter would be raised by his friends: or if a Whig paid due homage to Southey, the world would look for his speedy en- rolment in the Carlton Club.

In Swift's days the parties ac- tually contended for life and death; Oxford and Orford risked the penalties of treason in their respective administrations; their followers looked upon their rivals, not as opponents to be vanquished, but as enemies to be exterminated. Tliis has long been the source of great intellectual evil in Eng- land, but perhaps political injustice is a portion of the tax that must be paid for political liberty. Gulliver's Travels were not published until after Swift's return to Ireland.

They appeared with an affected mys- tery, of which the Dean was very fond, and which even his most intimate friends were compelled to respect. Pope, Arbuthnot, and Gay so far humored his caprice as to write dubiously respecting the author, though the two former must have known that such a work was projected long be- fore. There was, however, a reason for his concealment, of which, in the present day, we can form no very adequate no- tion.

Walpole was so enraged by the Drapier's Letters, that he threatened to arrest Swift; the Irish people formed volun- tary associations for the Dean's defense, and the minister was dissuaded from his design by a judicious friend, who in- quired whether he had ten thousand men ready to escort the messenger charged with the execution of the warrant? A new and more bitter attack on the administration seemed likely to awake the slumbering vengeance of the Premier, and the recent impeachment of Bishop Atterbury had shown that he would not be scrupulous in the use of intercepted correspondence.

This is not the place for entering upon the examina- tion of its substantial deserts; but it is of some importance to examine how it was viewed by contemporaries. Swift and his friends were persuaded that the treaty of Utrecht had been the salvation of Great Britain, that it had espe- cially secured our naval supremacy, and effectually pre- vented France from rivaling us at sea. He therefore re- garded the impeachment of Oxford, and the banishment of Bolingbroke, as gross acts of national injustice, attributable chiefly to the ambition and jealousy of Walpole, whom he stigmatizes under the name of Flimnap.

The more minute political allusions are pointed out in the notes; it will be more convenient here to confine attention to generalities. Walpole had many enemies, even in the nominal Whig party, who professed themselves adherents to the Prince of Wales; these persons, aware that they could not of themselves form an administration, projected a coalition with the Tories, or as they called them, the party of the country gentlemen.

In the language of the day, they hoped to form a ''broad-bottom ministry;" they affected to de- scribe the difference between the parties in principle as very trifling, not greater than that between the high-heels and low-heels of Lilliput; and as appeals had been made to religious prejudices, they represented the controversy between the Latin and English churches as not more im- portant than that between the Big-endians and the Little- endians. Projects for something like a union between the churches were not unfrequently made at the time, and the chances of success for a season, seemed far from desperate.

All these expecta- tions were disappointed; but when the Travels appeared, they were rife in every political circle, and the nation gen- erally looked for great advantages from their realization. The political views advocated in Lilliput were therefore generally popular; they gratified the entire body of the Tories, the discontented section of the Whigs, and the great multitude which in every free state looks for Utopian advantages from the mere fact of change.

The fiction is very happily suited to this design: the opinions which beings of a reflec- tive and philosophic character, endowed with immense force, were likely to form of the intrigues and scandals of a Euro- pean court, are developed with exquisite skill. It is man view- ing the political squabbles of an ant-hill, or Gulliver himself estimating the court of Lilliput.

The political principles ad- vocated in the Voyage to Brobdingnag were the same as those which the Tory party supported in Parliament. From the imperfection of the parliamentary reports in these days, and from the influence of the cry of Jacobitism, with which the Whig leaders assailed their opponents, we have only very imperfect specimens of the eloquence of Shippen, Wind- ham, St.

Aubin, etc. The contrast between Gulliver's position in Brobdingnag and Lilliput is very happily conceived, and it lends singular force to the more general application of the satire. The only special attack in the Voyage to Brobdingnag is directed against the maids of honor, for whom, as Dr. Delany in- forms us.

"...And Gulliver Returns" --In Search of Utopia-- Synopsis and comments

Swift had no great veneration. It was to the in- fluence of the ladies of the court that he attributed Arch- bishop Sharpe's success in preventing him from getting a bishopric; and he suspected that, notwithstanding all his flatteries, Mrs. Masham was far from anxious to effect a change in his favor in the mind of Queen Anne. The Voyage to Laputa was the least relished, because it was the least understood at the time of its publication. The pursuits of the inhabitants of the Flying Island were de- signed to ridicule the proceedings of the Royal Society, a body which had previously came under the lash of the auth- or of Hudibras.

Sir Isaac Newton had provoked the Dean's resentment, by giving his opinions as master of the mint in favor of Wood's copper coinage; and it was probably the absence of mind for which that philosopher was notorious which suggested the whimsical notion of the Flapper as an attendant upon the Laputians. His attack on the musician is, however, a greater failure than that on the philosophers, for he was too ignorant of the science to discover the points most open to assault. Some of these will be found mentioned in the notes, and those who rememiber the years and will be at no loss to supply parallels.

It was generally felt that the scenes with the ghost at Glubbdubdrib were de- cided failures, and posterity has not reversed this judgment. The melancholy description of the Struldbruggs appears to have been written with too correct an anticipation of the calamitous end of Swift's own Hfe; it is written with the same feeling that dictated his exclamation to Dr.


Young when they passed a withered oak, "I am like that tree, I shall die at top. But as Sir Walter Scott has well observed, the state of society at that time in Ireland was well calculated to inspire the worst opinions of human nature; Swift had before him a faction of petty tyrants and a nation of trampled slaves; the penal laws, not less remarkable for their absurdity than their iniquity, seemed as if the party of the ascendency regarded persecution as a toy or plaything, and made human suffering an unhuman sport.

But there were other causes that tended to strengthen and develop this morbid tendency to misanthropy; Vanessa had sunk into an early grave, Stella was fast following her; two tender and affectionate hearts were his victims; all his ambitious projects were blighted, and a disease, the most afflicting to which humanity is exposed, had given premonitory warnings of its near approach.

There was m Swift's day a large class of disappointed politicians who, like him, sought consolation in misanthropy. The general narrative was not less agreeable to the mass of readers than the satire to particular classes of politicians. Gulliver's character is so thoroughly natural, so completely that of the English sailor of his day, that many were dis- posed to hail him as a personal acquaintance. A naval man at the time used to assert that he knew Captain Gulli- ver very well, but that he lived at Wapping, and not at Rotherhithe.

The task was under- taken by L'Abbe Desfontaines, who was, however, afraid to eive a literal version of Swift's bold opinions. He re- modeled the work in order to adapt it to French taste and it is no unamusing task to compare his translation with the original, as an example of the differences m the style and habits of thought between the Augustan age of England and that of France.

Fortune appeared once more to shine on Swift, when Gul- liver's Travels were published. Prince of Wales; the Princess and the Prince's mistress, who lived in anomalous concord, both joined in these hon- ors, and the Dean had hopes that a new reign would open the door of promotion. He sent the Princess a dress of Irish manufacture — a poplin, which for the last century has been the chief glory of the Irish loom.

Caroline, in turn, promised him a collection of medals, which she never sent. Howard, the Prince's mistress, sent the Dean a ring, in return for which he transmitted her a little golden crown, which was designed to represent the diadem of the Queen of Lilliput. In the midst of these encouraging cir- cumstances, Stella died, and Swift's domestic happiness, such as it was, ended torever.

About the same time, George I. Swift made some efforts to preserve his favor with Queen Caro- line, but the Queen had forgotten the promises of the Princess. He clung still longer to the hopes he entertained of promotion through the influence of Mrs. Howard; but George II. The Dean at length discovered that all his exertions were vain; he re- turned to Ireland just before the death of Stella, and never again visited England. From time to time. Swift wrote occasional pamphlets on Irish policy, which served to maintain his influence with the public; but in private, the circle of his acquaintance be- came daily more contracted, and few were admitted to his table who did not submit to his caprices and administer large doses of flattery to his pride.

His favorite maxim be- came, ''Vive la bagatelle," and it is probable that he found trifles necessary to life. His petty amusements gave em- ployment to a mind which could not be idle, but which sickness and sorrow incapacitated for steady exertion. As years advanced, his fits of giddiness and deafness became more frequent, and the acerbity of his temper increased in the same proportion. In , while writing the "Legion Club," a bitter lampoon on the Irish House of Commons, he was seized with a fit of giddiness so severe and so long-con- tinued that he never after ventured to attempt any work of thought or labor.

In his mental condition was such that it became necessary to appoint legal guardians of his person and property. A short interval of reason en- sued in the following year, but the hopes to which it gave rise were soon dispelled; in a few days he sunk into a state of lethargic stupidity, motionless, heedless, and speechless. Richard Brennan, the servant who attended him in his last illness, and in whose arms he expired, used to relate that whilst the power of speech remained, he continued constant in the performance of his private devotions, and in propor- tion as his memory failed, they were gradually shortened, until at last he could only repeat the Lord's Prayer; which, however, he continued to do until the power of utterance forever ceased.

His death was tranquil. Berkeley declared that there were only four authentic portraits of Swift, of which that preserved as a kind of heirloom in the deanery of St. Patrick's is the most faithful. A copy of it adorns the Dining Hall in Trinity College, Dublin, and represents a countenance strongly marked with grief, indignation, and benevolence.

He was tall, robust, and well made, his complexion was rather dark, his eyes were blue and very expressive, his eyebrows dark and heavy, his nose inclined to be aquiline, his Hps slightly curled upwards. In his youth he was considered handsome, and in the decline of life his figure is universally described as noble and imposing. He was a very fluent speaker, ready at retort and reply, never thrown ofif his center by the un- expected attack of an assailant. The successive lords-lieutenant of Ireland dreaded his tongue as much as his pen; and all of them, from the amiable Carteret to the haughty Dorset, sought to disarm his hostility by paying homage to his genius.

All his biographers dwell on the charms of Swift's con- versation; the originality of his humor, which was some- times carried too far, at first appeared startling, but when managed with the skill which Swift could exert when he pleased, it rendered him a companion whose society was everywhere sought. He delighted in relating anecdotes, which his exquisite touches of satire rendered irresistibly amusing, while his keenness of observation made them not less instructive.

He took great delight in puns, and was the author of some of the best that exist; for instance, his application of a line from Virgil to the lady who swept down a Cremona fiddle with her mantle: Mantua, vae! They parted, but the gentleman, struck by the Dean's figure, sent his servant to inquire who the Dean was ; the messenger first made application to the Dean's attend- ant, who was an original in his own way, and he referred the man to his master.

The messenger rode up to the Dean, and said, "Please, sir, master would be obliged if you would tell him who you are?


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Another worthy had taken for his motto Eues hand male notus, which Swift, with equal wit and truth, trans- lated, "Better known than trusted. I wonder where you stole 'em; Could nothing but your chief reproach Serve for the motto of your coach? He had an extraordinary talent for extempore rhymes. An innkeeper who wished to add the king's head to his old sign of the bell, asked for a motto which might reconcile such an anomaly. Swift gave him, May the king live long; Dong ding, diftg dong. After the publication of the Drapier's Letters he became so popular that he was always followed by a crowd when- ever he appeared in the streets of Dublin.

He used fre- quently to say that the Irish ought to subscribe and pur- chase him a stock of hats, for that his own was worn out by the number of salutes he had to return. Many apocryphal anecdotes are related of his interchange of slang with the shoeblacks and beggars of Dublin, a race remarkable for their readiness in repartee; but it has hap- pened to Swift as to other celebrated jesters, to be ac- counted the author of every joke, good and bad, perpetrated in his day, and few of the jokes preserved by tradition are worthy of being repeated.

His epigrams and lampoons display a ready and caustic wit. The best example of this skill is the epigram on Whiston and Ditton, which, however, can- not be quoted; next to it, perhaps, may be ranked the notice of Bettesworth, a sergeant at law, who had pro- voked the Dean's hostility by attacking the privileges of the clergy: Thus at the bar the booby Bettesworth, Thoug-h half a crown o'erpays his sweat's worth, Who knows in law, nor text, nor margent, Call Singleton his brother sergeant.

When the poem of which these lines form a part was first published, it was brought wet from the press to a company in which Bettesworth was present. The sergeant was asked to read it, and when he came to the lines reflecting on himself, he started up and vowed that he would take deadly revenge. He hastened to the deanery, and, forcing his way to Swift's presence, said, "Sir, I am Sergeant Bettesworth.

Bettesworth, I was in my youth, acquainted with great lawyers, who, knowing my disposition to satire, advised me if any scoun- drel or blockhead whom I had lampooned should ask me such a question as you have put, that I should deny the authorship, and I therefore tell you that I am not the auth- or of these lines. Dean, you are like one of your own Yahoos; you have clambered to a place of security whence you can gratify your vindictive temper by pelting filth at your betters.

Patrick's district formed an association for the Dean's defense, and the un- fortunate lawyer could scarcely venture to appear in the streets. He subsequently declared in Parliament that Swift's satire had deprived him of more than twelve hundred pounds a year. An epigram was the last composition of Swift, and al- most his last symptom of rationality. The physician repHed, "That, Mr. Dean, is the magazine of arms and powder, for the security of the city. Here Irish wit is seen! When nothing's left that's worth defense, We build a magazine. The greatest difficulty in the analysis of Swift's literary character is to discover by what depravity of intellect he acquired a taste for loathsome and filthy ideas, from which every other mind shrinks with disgust.

Few political writers could boast of such triumphs. In the reign of Queen Anne, he turned the stream of popu- larity against the Whigs, and must be confessed to have guided for a time the entire mass of public opinion in Eng- land. In the ensuing reign he became the tribune of the Irish people, and their political dictator. Supported only by a trampled and oppressed nation, he bade defiance to the crown, the bench, and the Parliament, "and showed that wit confederated with truth has such force as authority is unable to resist " To use the words of Dr.

Johnson, "He said truly of himself, that Ireland was his debtor. It was from the time that he first began to patronize the Irish that they may date their riches and prosperity. Nor can they be charged with ingratitude to their benefactor, for they reverenced him as a guardian and obeyed him as a dictator. There was in his character much to condemn, but there was also much to admire; very inferior deserts may secure popularity for a day, substantial merit can alone embalm a memory in the heart of a nation: Then be his failing-s cover'd by his tomb, And guardian laurels o'er his ashes bloom.

Lem uel Gulliv er, the author of these Travels, is my an- cient and intimate friend; there is likewise some relation between us on the mother's side. About three years ago, Mr. Gulliver, growing weary of the concourse of curious people coming to him at his house in Redriff, made a small purchase of land, with a convenient house, near Newark in Nottinghamshire, his native country, where he now lives, retired, yet in good esteem among his neighbors.

Although Mr. Gulliver was born in Nottinghamshire, where his father dwelt, yet I have heard him say his family came from Oxfordshire; to confirm which, I have observed in the church-yard at Banbury in that country, several tombs and monuments of the Gullivers. Before he quitted Red- riff, he left the custody of the following papers in my hands, with the liberty to dispose of them as I should think fit. I have carefully perused them three times. The style is very plain and simple; and the only fault I find is, that the author, after the manner of travelers, is a little too circum- stantial.

There is an air of truth apparent throughout the whole; and, indeed, the author was so distinguished for his veracity, that it became a sort of proverb among his neighbors at Redriff, when any one affirmed a thing to say, 'Tt was as true as if Mr. Gulliver had spoken it. Gulliver may be a little dissatisfied: but I was re- solved to fit the work as much as possible to the general capacity of readers. As for any further particulars relating to the author, the reader will receive satisfaction from the first page of the book. Richard Sympsofi.

I hope you will be ready to own publicly, whenever you shall be called to it, that by your great and frequent urg- ency, you prevailed on me to publish a very loose and un- correct account of my travels, with directions to hire some young gentleman of either university to put them in order, and correct the style, as my cousin Dampier did by my ad- vice, in his book called ''A Voyage Round the World. But you, or your inter- polator, ought to have considered, that as it was not my inclination, so it was not decent to praise any animal of our composition before my master Houyhnhnm; and, be- sides, the fact was altogether false; for to my knowledge, being in England during some part of her majesty's reign, she did govern by a chief minister; nay, even by two suc- cessively, the first whereof was the lord of Godolphin, and the second the lord of Oxford; so that you have made me say the thing that was not.

Likewise, in the account of the academy of projectors, and several passages of my dis- course to my master Houhyhnhnm, you have either omitted some material circumstances, or mincfed or changed them in such a manner, that I do hardly know my own work. But, pray, how could that which I spoke so many years ago, and at above five thousand leagues distance, in another reign, be applied to any of the Yahoos who now are said to govern the herd; especially at a time when I little thought or feared the unhappiness of living?

Have not I the most reason to complain, when I see these very Yahoos carried by Houyhnhnms in a vehicle, as if they were brutes, and those the rational creatures? And, indeed, to avoid so mon- strous and detestable a sight was one principal motive of my retirement hither. Thus much I thought proper to tell you in relation to yourself, and to the trust I reposed in you.

I do, in the next place, complain of my own great want of judgment, in being prevailed upon, by the entreaties and false reasonings of you and some others, very much against my own opinion, to suffer my Travels to be published. Pray bring to your mind how often I desired you to consider, when you insisted on the motive of public good, that the Yahoos were a species of animals utterly incapable of amend- ment by precepts or example; and so it has proved; for, instead of seeing a full stop put to all abuses and corrup- tions, at least in this little island, as I had reason to expect; behold, after six months' warning, I cannot learn that my book has produced one single effect according to my inten- tions.

I desired you would let me know by a letter when the party and faction were extinguished; judges learned and up- right; pleaders honest and modest, with a tincture of common sense, and Smithfield blazing with pyramids of law books; the young nobility's education entirely changed; the phy- sicians banished; the female Yahoos abounding in virtue, honor, truth, and good sense; courts and levees of great ministers thoroughly weeded and swept; wit, merit, and learning rewarded ; all disgracers of the press, in prose and verse, condemned to eat nothing but their own cotton, and quench their thirst with their own ink.

These, and a thou- sand other reformations, I firmly counted upon by your en- couragement; as, indeed, they were plainly deduclble from the precepts delivered in my book. And It must be owned, that seven months were sufficient time to correct every vice and folly to which Yahoos are subject, If their natures had been capable of the least disposition to virtue or wisdom. I find, likewise, that the writers of those bundles are not agreed among themselves; for some of them will not allow me to be the author of my own Travels, and others make me author of books to which I am wholly a stranger.

However, I send you some corrections which you may insert if ever there should be a second edition; and yet I cannot stand to them, but shall leave that matter to my judicious and candid readers to ad- just it as they please. I hear some of our sea Yahoos find fault with my sea language as not proper in many parts nor now in use. It was my first voyage, while I was young, I was instructed by the oldest mariners, and learned to speak as they did. But I have since found that the sea Yahoos are apt, like the land ones, to become newfangled in their words, which the latter change every year; insomuch as I remember, upon each return to my own country, their old dialect was so altered that I could hardly understand the new.

Gulliver complains in this letter are to be found only in the first edition; for the Dean, having restored the text wherever it had been altered, sent the copy to the late Mr. Motte by the hands of Mr. Charles Ford. This copy has been exactly fol- lowed in every subsequent edition, except that printed in Ireland by Mr, Faulkner, the editor of which, supposing the Dean to be serious when he mentioned the corruption of dates, and yet finding them un- altered, thought fit to alter them himself.

There is, however, scarce one of these alterations in which he has not committed a blunder; though while he was thus busy in defacing- the parts that were per- fect, he suffered the accidental blemish of others to remain. If the censure of the Yahoos could in any way affect me, I should have great reason to complain that some of them are so bold as to think my book of Travels a mere fiction out of mine own brain, and have gone so far as to drop hints that the Houyhnhnms and Yahoos have no more ex- istence than the inhabitants of Utopia.

And is there less probability in my account of the Houyhnhnms or Yahoos when it is manifest as to the latter, there are so many thousands, even in this country, who only differ from their brother brutes in Houyhnhnm-land, be- cause they use a sort of jabber and do not go naked? I wrote for their amendment and not their approbation. Do these miserable animals presume to think that I am. Yahoo as I am, it is well known through all Houyhnhnm-land, that, by the in- structions and example of my illustrious master, I was able, in the compass of two years although I confess with the utmost difficulty , to remove that infernal habit of lying, shuffling, deceiving, and equivocating, so deeply rooted in the very souls of all my species, especially the Europeans.

I have other complaints to make upon this vexatious oc- casion, but I forbear troubling myself or you any further. My father had a small estate in Nottinghamshire; I was the third of five sons. In their joint publication the "Memoirs of Martinus Scrib- ierus," the sketch of the work is thus given by Pope: "It was in the year 1G69, that Martin set out on his travels. It is not yet time to inform thee; but what hints I am at liberty to give I will.

Soon after my return from Leyden, I was recom- mended by my good master, Mr. Bates, to be surgeon to the Swallow, Captain Abraham Pannell, commander; with whom I continued three years and a half, making a voyage or two into the Levant, and some other parts. When I "But if any man shall see such very extraordinary voyages, which manifest the most distinguishing marks of a philosopher, a politi- cian, and a legislator, and can imagine them to belong to a surgeon of a ship, or captain of a merchantman, let him remain in his igno- rance.

The diminutive race is mentioned by Herodotus, Aristotle, Pliny, and even by some of the earlier modern travelers. The following account is from Ctesias, who was contemporary with Xenophon: "In the middle of India there are black men called pigmies, using the same language as the other Indians; they are very little, the tallest of them being but two cubits, and most of them but a cubit and a half high.

Their sheep are like lambs, and their oxen and asses scarce as big as rams, and their horses and mules, and all their other cattle, not bigger. Three thousand of these pigmies are household troops in the service of the king of India. They are good archers. They are very just, and use the same laws as the Indians do. Every one has heard the story of the Irish bishop. Jonathan Gulliver was a member of the House of Representatives in Boston.

Bates, my master, encouraged me, and by him I was recom- mended to several patients. I took part of a small house in the Old Jewry; and being advised to alter my condition, I married Miss Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr. Ed- mund Burton, hosier, in Newgate Street, with whom I re- ceived four hundred pounds for a portion.

I removed from the Old Jewry to Fet- ter Lane, and from thence to Wapping, hoping to get busi- ness among the sailors, but it would not turn to account. In Gulliver's early history, as in that of Crusoe, persons are casually mentioned of whom we hear nothing more. Gulliver's uncle, like Crusoe's brother, only comes on the stage to disappea,r again forever. Sir Walter Scott suggests that Swift probably imitated Defoe in this particular, but the ideal character of Gulliver naturally led the Dean to introduce these petty particulars.

He designed to portray Gulliver as a kind of second Dampier, uniting the hom-ely sense and prejudices of a true-born Englishman to the acquired wisdom of a life of ad- ventures. There is a sailor's bluntness and frankness in everything that Gulliver tells us of himself and family; the occasional minuteness and even coarseness of the personal details are faithfully taken from the journals of the early English voyagers, whose accounts of their discoveries are strangely blended with the most trifling particulars respecting their food, clothing, etc.

It would not be proper, for some reasons, to trouble the reader with the particulars of our adventures in those seas; let it suffice to inform him, that in our passage from thence to the East Indies, we were driven by a violent storm to the northwest of Van Dieman's Land. Twelve of our crew were dead by immoderate labor and ill food: the rest were in a very weak condition.

On the 5th of November, which was the beginning of the summer in those parts, the weather being very hazy, the seamen spied a rock within half a cable's length of the ship, but the wind was so strong that we were driven directly upon it, and immediately split. Six of the crew, of whom I was one, having let down the boat into the sea, made a shift to get clear of the ship and the rock.

We rowed, by my computation,. We therefore trusted ourselves to the mercy of the waves, and in about half an hour the boat was overset by a sudden flurry from the north. For my part, I swam as fortune directed me, and was pushed forward by wind and tide. I often let my legs drop, but could feel no bottom, but when I was almost gone, and able to struggle no longer, I found myself within my depth; and by this time the storm was much abated. The declivity was so small, that I walked near a mile before I got to the shore, which I conjectured was about eight o'clock in the evening. I then advanced forward near half a mile, but could not discover any sign of houses or inhabitants ; at least I was in so weak a condition that I did not observe them.

Tasman' s narrative was very loose and inaccurate so that Swift might people the seas which that navigator traversed with any creatures he pleased. I attempted to rise, but was not able to stir; for, as I happened to lie on my back, I found my arms and legs were strongly fastened on each side to the ground; and my hair, which was long and thick, tied down in the same manner.

I like- vvise felt several slender ligatures across my body, from my arm-pits to my thighs. I could only look upwards; the sun began to grow hot, and the light offended my eyes. I heard a confused noise about me; but in the posture I lay, could see nothing except the sky. I was in the utmost astonishment, and roared so loud that they all ran back in fright, and some of them, as I was afterwards told, were hurt by the falls they got by leaping from my sides upon the ground.

However, they soon returned, and one of them who ventured so far as to get a full sight of my face, lifting up his hands and eyes by-way of admiration, cried out in a shrill but distinct voice, Hekinah degul! The others repeated the same words sev- eral times, but I then knew not what it meant. One phalanx assaulted his left hand, but against his right hand, that being the stronger, two phalanxes were appointed.

They set fire to his hair, put reaping-hooks in his eyes: and that he might not breathe, fixed doors to his mouth and nostrils. But all the execution that they could do was only to awaken him; and when this was done, deriding their folly, he gathered them all up into his lion's skin and carried them Philostratus thinks to Euristhenes. But the creatures ran off a second time, before I could seize them ; whereupon there was a great shout in a very shrill accent, and after it had ceased I heard one of them cry aloud, Tolgo phonac ; when in an instant I felt above a hundred arrows discharged on my left hand, which pricked me like so many needles; and besides they shot another flight into the air, as we do bombs in Europe, whereof many, I suppose, fell on my body though I felt them not and some on my face, which I immediately covered with my left hand.


I thought it the most prudent method to lie still, and my design was to continue so till night, when, my left hand being already loose, I could easily free myself: and as for the inhabitants, I had reason to believe I might be a match for the greatest army they could bring against me, if they were all of the same size with him that I saw.

But fortune disposed otherwise of me. The hurgo for so they call a great lord, as I afterwards They tied him down— these little men did— And having- valiantly ascended Upon the mighty man's protuberance, They did so strut! Upon my soul, It must have been extremely droll To see their pigmy pride's exuberance! And how the doughty manikins Amused themselves with sticking pins And needles in the great man's breeches: And how some very little things That pass'd for lords, on scaffoldings Got up and worried him with speeches, Alas! To mighty men to be caught napping; Though different to these persecutions; For Gulliver there took the nap While here, the Nap — ah.

Sir Robert Walpole after his expulsion from Parliament was an active agitator among the Whigs, and was not less formidable to Harley and Bolingbroke, outside the walls of the House of Commons, than he had been as a leader of parliamentary opposition. He descended from the stage, and commanded that several ladders should be ap- plied to my sides, on which about a hundred of the inhabi- tants mounted, and walked towards my mouth, laden with baskets full of meat, which had been provided and sent thith- er by the king's orders, upon the first intelligence he received of me.

I observed there was the flesh of several animals, but could not distinguish them by the taste. I ate them by two or three at a mouth full, and took three loaves at a time about the bigness of musket-balls. I then made another sign that I wanted drink. They brought me a second hogshead, which X I drank in the same manner, and made signs for more: but iS. When I had performed these S wonders they shouted for joy, and danced upon my breast, y repeating several times as they did at first, Hekinah degul.

L, They made me a sign that I should throw down the two hogsheads, but first warning the people below to stand out Sof the way, crying aloud, Borach mevolah: and when they saw the vessels in the air there was a universal shout of Hekinah degul. I confess I was often tempted, while they were passing backwards and forwards on my body, to seize iforty or fifty of the first that came in my reach and dash jthem against the ground.

But the remembrance of what I had felt, which probably might not be the worst they could do, and the promise of honor I made to them — for so I interpreted my submissive behavior — soon drove out these imaginations. Besides, I now considered myself as bound by the laws of hospitality, to a people who had treated me with so much expense and magnificence. After some time, when they observed that I made no more demands for meat, there appeared before me a person of high rank from his imperial majesty. His excellency, having mounted' on the small of my right leg, advanced forwards up to my face, with about a dozen of his retinue, and producing his credentials under the signet royal, which he applied close to my eyes, spoke about ten minutes without any signs of anger, but with a kind of determinate resolution: often pointing forwards, which, as I afterwards found, was towards the capital city, about half a mile distant, whither it was agreed by his majesty in council that I must be conveyed.

I answered in few words, but to no purpose, and made a sign wath my hand that was loose, putting it to the other but over his excellency's head for fear of hurting him or his train , and then to my own head and body, to signify that I desired my liberty. It appeared that he understood me well enough, for he shook his head by way of disapprobation, and held his hands in a posture to show that I must be carried as a prisoner.

However, he made other signs, to let me under- stand that I should have meat and drink enough, and very go od treatmen t. Wherelipori I Onct" lllOie thought of TTttempting to I preak my bon ds; but again, when I felt the smart of their arrows upon my face and hands, which were all in blisters, and many of the darts still sticking in them, and observing likewise that the number of my enemies increased, I gave them tokens to let them know that they might do with me what they pleased.

Soon after I heard a general shout, with frequent repetitions of the words, peplom selan ; and I felt great numbers of people on my left side relaxing the cords to such a degree that I was able to turn upon my right, and to ease myself with making water; which I very plentifully did, to the great astonishment of the people ; who, conjecturing by my motion what I was going to do, Immediately opened to the right and left on that side, to avoid the torrent, which fell with such noise and violence from me.

These circumstances, added to the refresh- ment I had received by their victuals and drink, which were very nourishing, disposed me to sleep. I slept about eight hours, as I was afterwards assured; and it was no wonder, for the physicians, by the emperor's order, had mingled a sleepy potion in the hogsheads of wine. This resolution perhaps may appear ' very bold and dangerous, and I am confident would not be imitated by any prince in Europe on the like occasion.

He often builds his largest men of war, whereof some are nine feet long, in the woods where the timber grows, and has them carried on these engines three or four hundred yards to the sea.